Sunday, January 12, 2020

Lady of Bath vs. Desdemona

ENGL 220 – Scott Mackenzie December 8th, 2010 Breaking the Socially Acceptable Behavior of Women in Chaucer and Shakespeare To say that men in the centuries leading up to the twentieth believed a woman must be â€Å"seen but not heard,† is a fair statement. Women during the times of Chaucer and Shakespeare were second class citizens with little rights. They were considered properties of their masters (fathers and husbands), and had no use other than birthing and mothering. A woman was supposed to be meek, chaste, and have no opinion.However, the characters Desdemona in William Shakespeare’s Othello and Dame Alison from The Wife of Bath’s Prologue in Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales seemingly go against common conventions of women, as they are bold characters who have strong opinions and exert dominance. Dame Alison, the Wife of Bath, is a character created by Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales. She is a merchant who has an interest in profit, an d uses sex and her many husbands to gain that profit. Alison has been married five times, and she is open to more, as sex is extremely important to her. Welcome the sixte, whan that ever he shal! / For sothe, I wol nat kepe me chast in al,/ Whan myn housbonde is fro the world anoon. † (51-53) Alison is boldly stating that she will continue to remarry because she cannot remain without sex, a statement that blatantly goes against the ideal woman, a lady who has one husband and is chaste at all times. Alison challenges this ideal when she says, â€Å"but that I axe, why that the fifthe man/ was noon housbond to the Samaritan? 1/ How manye mighte she have in mariage? / †¦ God bad us for to wexe and multiplye. (21-23, 28) In Alison’s time, the messages in the bible were considered the truth and 1 Referencing a story in the bible where Jesus told a Samaritan that though she had five mates, only one was her husband. were not to be challenged, especially by a woman. Withi n the first one hundred lines of her prologue, Dame Alison is breaking traditional womanly conventions by admitting her love of sex and questioning why the bible says she can only have one husband. Traditionally, husbands worked to make money and wives took care of the household.However, in The Canterbury Tales, we find out that Dame Alison is a business woman who â€Å"of cloth-making she hadde swich an haunt,/ she passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunt. † (Prologue to Canterbury Tales, 449-50) And though she is a successful business woman in her own right, Alison also uses sex to control her men and receive material gifts from them. She states that her first husbands were so old that â€Å"they had me yeven hir gold and hir tresoor;/ me neded nat do lenger diligence/ to winne hir love, or doon hem reverence. (204-206) In this quote, Alison is saying that they gave her land, money, and love without her having to have sex with them, a quote that shows readers she is open about sle eping with men to get what she wants. She reaffirms this notion of using sex to get what she wants by stating, â€Å"a wys womman wol sette hir ever in oon/ to gete hir love, ther as she hath noon. / But sith I hadde hem hoolly in myn hond,/ and sith they hadde me yeven all hir lond/ what sholde I taken hede hem for to plese/ but it were for my profit and myn ese? (209-214) In the lines following that quote, Alison goes on to mention that she had her husbands wrapped around her finger and that they were happy to please her. This is a direct contradiction to the social expectations of women in the time of Chaucer. Women were supposed to be at their husbands beckon and call, to ask for nothing, and to provide sex when needed by the husband. However, Alison’s husbands are at her beckon and call, she asks repeatedly for things, and she only has sex when she wants something. By using sex to her economic advantage, Alison is further breaking the socially acceptable behavior of wom en.Dame Alison challenges the bible in reference to virginity. Challenging the bible was generally taboo, especially when it came from a woman. Alison poses strong arguments and questions about virginity. Firstly, she says that Saint Paul’s talk of virginity and remaining celibate throughout life â€Å"al nis but conseil. †(82) Secondly, in lines 105-114, she is saying that virginity is a kind of perfection, and though Jesus was perfect, virginity is only meant for those who strive for absolute perfection, like Jesus was. Alison, on the other hand, says that â€Å"[she] wol bistoew the flour of al myn age,/ in the actes and in fruit of mariage. (113-114) Thirdly, Alison questions the design of the physical body. â€Å"Telle me also, to what conclusion/ were membres maad of generacioun/ and for what profit was a wight y-wrought? † (115-117) In this quote, Alison is asking why genitals were made perfect for each other if they weren’t mean to be used. Quest ioning why the bible and society have such strong opinions on virginity, a subject that is not generally discussed by women, is yet another reason why Dame Alison, the Wife of Bath from The Canterbury Tales challenges the socially acceptable behavior of women.Desdemona, the main female character in William Shakespeare’s Othello is another example of a character who is breaking female behavior norms. In the first act, Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, makes note of what a proper Venetian woman should be. He says they should be â€Å"of spirit still and quiet†¦ never bold. † (I. iii. 95-97) Contrary to Brabantio’s statement however, Desdemona is arguably bold. Her father, Brabantio, has long decided Desdemona will marry a business man. She, however, finds them boring, and thus marries Othello.Othello, though a celebrated general of the Venetian arm, is a moor2 and is therefore somewhat of a 2 A person who usually comes from northern Africa or Arabia and i s therefore black or dark skinned. societal outcast in the predominantly white Venice. Desdemona blatantly defies her father, something proper women never do, by marrying a social outcast. Any proper woman in Othello’s time would have been meek and polite both in public and in private, characteristics that are not displayed by Desdemona in either place.When confronted by her father about her marriage to Othello, Desdemona fights back, stating â€Å"I am hitherto your daughter: but here’s my husband/ and so much duty as my mother show’d/ to you, preferring you before her,/ so much I challenge that I may profess/ due to the Moor my lord. † (I. iii. 185-189) Desdemona is maintaining a strong stance on her marriage to Othello and is not cowering away because of her angry father. She publicly argues with Brabantio, an act that easily challenges the socially acceptable behavior of women as women were supposed to be submissive, never arguing with their fathers ( or any man for that matter), specially in public. Like Dame Alison, Desdemona is a temptress who uses sex to get what she wants. Trying to convince Othello to forgive Cassio, Desdemona states, â€Å"tell me Othello, I wonder in my soul/ what you would ask me that I should deny,/ or stand so mammering on? † (III. iii. 68-70) By referring to her unquestionable desire to please Othello in every possible way, Desdemona is saying that Othello cannot possibly love her as much as she loves him if he denies her wishes. In this one instance, Desdemona is subtly defying the socially acceptable behavior of women as she is using her sexuality to get what she wants.Overall, both Desdemona from Othello and Dame Alison from The Wife of Bath’s Prologue are characters who defy the socially acceptable behavior of women in their respective time periods. Desdemona acts bold by defying and arguing with her father, and uses her sexuality to manipulate. Similarly, Alison uses her sexuality f or economic gains from her five husbands, has a successful business of her own, and challenges the bible’s stance on multiple marriages and virginity. Therefore, both Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare challenge the ideals of the behavior of women in the early 14th and 17th centuries respectively.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Government Argumentative Essay Government - 1768 Words

Government Argumentative Essay †Painting, writing, orchestra, band, choir these programs are the so-called money wasting according to the government. Some governments believe that if they take these programs away their budget will be more. They said they have done tests and evidence that shows how it does effect of course there is statistics and finances that show that. However, you cannot really base something we are born with based on a test. The Arts is a compelling thing some people are born with it some are not. It would not be fair to the kids who struggle in the core subjects like math and reading the kids who do not well let me tell you, you are lucky. Those kids are confident in the math and reading the kids who are not they feel ashamed of themselves that they cannot get a certain concept. â€Å"We as humans are designed to be well-rounded; we have two halves of the brain. We are not ignoring that right side of the brain, but we are certainly underserving that side of the brain. Says Lance eagled an art teacher at Churchill whose budget was recently cut. According to psychology, you have two parts of your brain. Some people have stronger sides than other for instance, if you are more left brained you have more analytical thinking, you think logically , are good at language in addition to math and science . If you have a stronger right, you are very imaginative; you are good at understanding something immediately, plus having creativity, in addition to Art andShow MoreRelatedGovernment Incentives on Biofuel: An Argumentative Essay1435 Words   |  6 Pagesstudy focuses on discussing the various aspects of how the Government incentives on biofuel are raising the food prices. Introduction Biofuel is a type of energy which can be derived from biomass, animal waste and most controversially from renewable plants. Biofuel is used as a substitute for oil and other energies. The reasons for the growing fame of biofuel is both negative and positive as it is an alternative form of energy for the government and makes their life easy, on the other hand biofuel hasRead MoreArgumentative Essay822 Words   |  4 PagesArgumentative Essay The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, and hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others dont agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of formingRead Moreloyalist or patriot...1528 Words   |  7 PagesArgumentative Essay Loyalist or Patriot Background: Various events of the 1700s led colonists to develop strong beliefs regarding the British government. The Trial of Peter Zenger, The Proclamation of 1763, the Boston Massacre combined with constantly changing taxes and rules that governed them made many think that self-governance was the best path for the colonies. Others felt that the King and his appointed officials had their best interests in mind and preferred to stay loyal to the crown. LaterRead MoreI Am The Product Of Clark County Educational System Essay1503 Words   |  7 Pageshow to write essays correctly. I am the product of Clark County Educational system. I have always struggled through my last classes and hoped to get out of my struggles this semester. One the greatest challenges that I faced was the distinction that existed among different types of writings that are performed within the English language. I did not understand how the distinction between a narrative essay, report essay and an analytical ess ay, argumentative essay, and reflective essay among other typesRead MoreTheories And Arguments : Inherit The Wind By Jerome Lawrence Robert E. Lee Essay780 Words   |  4 PagesDefinitions of conservatism and liberalism Legal jargon and courtroom vocabulary The structure of a play The structure of an argumentative essay Key factual information on historical cases where religion and government overlapped Students will be able to: Debate on timeless topics such as religion, science, professionalism, morals, and values Write an argumentative essay exploring decisions made by characters in the play â€Å"Inherit the Wind.† Support or refute arguments by Einstein, St. AnselmRead MoreEssay Writing Forms and Styles1402 Words   |  6 Pages------------------------------------------------- Forms and styles This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by a range of authors, including university students and professional essayists. [edit]Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subjectRead MoreGraduation Speech : My Career Life Consuming And Stressful Classes I Have Ever Taken1521 Words   |  7 Pagestough time making my sentences flow together easily, my essays sounded choppy. Also, it was obvious when I was stretching my sentences to make an essay the required length; I no longer need to do that, now I must work on shortening my essays. This portfolio contains assignments completed in this composition class. These will all show evidence of improved writing from this first draft to the final copy. Throughout the portfolio, four essays and three inferior writing assignments will be found. EachRead MoreThe Neoliberal Arts : How Colleges Have Sold Their Soul939 Words   |  4 PagesIn September of 2015, Harper’s Magazine published William Deresiewicz’s essay The Neoliberal Arts: How colleges have sold their soul to the market. In this essay, Deresiewicz discusses how colleges have changed their mindset over the last century and how the world’s new neoliberal thinking has changed higher education for the worse. Deresiewicz believes that â€Å"The purpose of education in a neoliberal age is to produce producers.†(1) In his introduction, Deresiewicz compares the ideologies of collegesRead Morenm,n. On the other hand the main dissimilarity of those two essays is authors view towards the society. Their ideas are very helpful for the development of our society.1747 Words   |  7 Pages Essay Assignment #1 Length: three to four pages not including Works Cited Evaluation of an Argument through Analysis – In this assignment, you are required to show your abilities to summarize and evaluate the effectiveness of an argument, based on your analysis of it. Thus far in the course, we have explored the ways in which we read and analyze an argumentative text critically. Critical analysis of a text requires us to look for what the author claims (the main idea/thesis) and to closelyRead MoreClassical Principles or Argument Essay1169 Words   |  5 Pagesrelationship amid your sources like writing documents, such as, lectures, essays or even observations. The sole purpose of an argument synthesis and usage is for you to be able to give your own opinion and point of view which needs to be supported and be applicable. It’s often debatable due to it being chalked up as suggestions to which rational individuals would often differ from. When creating a persuasive or argumentative writing, your main goal is to get your audience to comprehend and concur

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Theme Of Social Inequality In Battle Royal By Ralph...

Social inequality is something people would not expect to be influenced by setting. The story â€Å"Battle Royal,† by Ralph Ellison explains that a young boy grows up to learn the harsh reality of being an invisible man. The author does this by putting the main character in the story, though situations that make him realize that he is diminished from society. The meaning of the story is supported by the setting of where different things take place throughout the story. Places such as the main ballroom played an important role. The ring of where the battle royal took place between the classmates can also be looked at to see how the narrator explains his point. Not to also forget, that the author sets a scene with a young white woman to be able†¦show more content†¦The events turn south one the protagonist is made to partake in horrific humiliating events to entertain the white upper-classmen. It all began when he was invited into the hotel ballroom that he would begin being told what to do or what to say or act. The way the room was set up, put a boxing ring in front of a row of chairs from all three sides. The battle royal expresses the way in which members of the black community are looked at by whites. They are nothing but a source of cruel amusement, At worst, they are non-existent. The battle royal allows the town leaders to express their aggression toward the black boys in a way that they believed was â€Å"safe† (Wallace 2013). Immediately after the main character arrives to the boxing ring is when he faces a new challenge that he must overcome. This fight between classmates has him worried that he might not even get a chance to give his speech. The author implies that the setting of the boxing ring can intimidate anybody if there were in the same position. The author states that â€Å"I want to get at that ginger-colored nigger. Tear him limb from limb†¦I stood against the ropes trembling† (Ellison 208). This hostile e nvironment allowed the readers to see what position the main character finds himself in the middle of. This boxing ring allows readers to get a better picture of what the story is about. The use of an environment where he is forced to do something while blindfolded and beaten for entertainmentShow MoreRelatedEssay about Battle Royal, by Ralph Ellison1897 Words   |  8 Pagesactions of whites. One individual who overcame the relentless struggles was Ralph Ellison. Ellison, a famous author, depicted racial segregation in the 1940’s through a fictional short story entitled â€Å"Battle Royal.† Battle Royal symbolized the actions of what â€Å"other† people became accustomed to. Blacks were thought to be socially inferior and live in the shadows of whites. The idea which Ellison uses to paint â€Å"Battle Royal† consists of that when one sex or race treats another as an object or animalRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Harlem Renaissance1086 Words   |  5 Page sHarlem renaissance was very important to African American literature because it was it brought new attention to it. During the renaissance African American literature along with black art and music began to be followed by mainstream America. In Ralph Ellison novel Invisible Men was published in 1952 was another example about how race played in American society. The novel portrayed an African American men whose skin considered him invisible. The story builds up on what makes him invisible and the struggleRead MoreRalph Ellisons Invisible Man And O. J. : Made In America1692 Words   |  7 PagesRace and Opportunity play a grand role connecting the novel Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, and the documentary O.J.: Made in America. 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He progresses from being a hopeful student with a bright future to being just another poor black laborer in New Your City to being a fairly well off spokesperson for aRead MoreThe Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison2489 Words   |  10 Pagesâ€Å"I AM AN invisible man.† A story of obstacles of durable struggle, but hope, and everlasting search for voice in a narrow-minded society; The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison depicts the dehumanization and feeling of being ostracized in society, of one man. Imagine a time when everyone you encounter have a racial thought or credibility toward your own races, never considering the fact that who you are as a person does not matter worth a dime. You are better determines on shade of your ski n which hide

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Federal Government Prevention of Bullying - 2962 Words

Federal Government Prevention of Bullying We have all heard the words; the words that tear us down and break us apart. A person can only bend so far before they break. No one is immune to it, we are all capable of bullying. By no means is bullying right; often times the repercussions of being bullied are devastating. Although there is no Federal law currently in place to prevent bullying, there are discrimination and harassment laws and many states have anti-bullying laws; there is hope for the Federal government to follow suit in enacting anti-bullying laws. Bullying in the United States is continuing to get expand, but the awareness of bullying is also increasing. There are several ideas of what exactly bullying is. The most common†¦show more content†¦Those children who are not being bullied but are simply bystanders are often times fearful of standing up to protect those being bullied in fear of retaliation; the simply feel powerless. It is not uncommon for the bystanders to feel guilty because they want the bullying to stop but they wonder what will happen to them if they stand up. Will the bully go after them next? Some bystanders will join the bully just because they don’t want to end up being bullied. Bullying is a vicious cycle (How Bullying Affects Children.). Frequent fights are a common theme of bullies. They are also known to steal, vandalize property and carry a weapon which is often times used in the fights. Bullies are also more likely to engage in underage drinking and smoking. Poor grades are also typical for bullies. Not to mention, bullies carry a negative aura wherever they go; people tend to avoid those that give off bad vibes (How Bullying Affects Children.). School environments that contain a high amount of bullying issues contain a sense of fear and disrespect. Students quite often feel like the teachers and staff have no control over any bullying that is taking place and that the teachers don’t care about students being bullied. Teachers and faculty often times have a difficult time discovering or even believing that certain students are being bullies, especially when bullies put on a front and give teachers and faculty a different perception ofShow MoreRelatedShould The State Or Federal Government Put Laws?884 Words   |  4 Pagesstate or federal government put laws in school to prevent bullying? â€Å"With ignorance comes fear, from fear comes bigotry. Education is the key to acceptance†. Kathleen Patel. Bullying can take place in or out of school and in person or through other means of communication. Bullying can be verbal or physical, and when physical, it can be directed against a person, a person’s property, or be used to intimidate, rather than inflict damage to the person or his or her property. Verbal bullying can includeRead MoreThe Issue Of Bullying And Bullying1401 Words   |  6 Pages2305 4 Nov. 2014 The Issue of Bullying Did you know each year there are over 3.2 million students that are bullied? (11 Facts About Bullying ) Bullying has been a fundamental human demobilizing act for centuries; that has been woven into the crevices of non-physical cruelty and abuse. A simple meaning of bullying is the need for control. (contributors) It has always involved power, pain, persistence and premeditation. Emily Bazelon wrote an article, defining bullying as physical or verbal abuse,Read MoreThe Long-Term Effects of Bullying Essay1409 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerns and effects of bullying. Its epidemic is also starting to become closely related to the growing numbers of suicide rates amongst adolescents within the United States and across the globe. However, there are several adults that may take bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood. However, in order for one to examine the long-te rm effects of bullying one must be able to defineRead MoreThe Eternal Effects of Cyber Bullying1196 Words   |  5 Pagescyber bullying, allowing predators of all ages to interrupt what should be the safe haven in life; home. The eternal effects of cyber bullying on the victim and their families is potentially fatal as pointed out in the May 2013, Journal of Youth and Adolescence article by, published authors and psychology graduate’s in adolescent studies, Brett Litwiler and Amy Brausch. The article not only identifies this form of bullying as a problem but Litwiler and Brausch state, The impact of bullying in allRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Girl s Suicide Points1150 Words   |  5 Pageswrites about the tragic death of Rebecca Ann Sedwick, and the events that lead her to it. Rebecca was a normal, typical twelve year old pree-teen girl. Because of a disagreement over a boy Rebecca dated, several middle-school children stated bullying her. The bullying started at school, but it esculated to where she was vicously tormented on social media. Even after she stopped dating the boy, the attacks kept coming. Because not much was being done, even though Rebecca’s mother complained to school adiministratorsRead MoreAnti Bullying Essay1444 Words   |  6 PagesEnhanced Anti-Bullying Laws and School Programs Lisa Aparicio Saint Joseph’s College The Need for Enhanced Anti-Bullying Laws and School Programs Bullying was traditionally considered rites of passage, something all children and youth must go through. This is a myth. In today’s violent growing society, bullying has been responsible for several acts of non-punishable crimes. The lack of attention to implementing and enforcing anti-bullying state laws, and funding anti-bullying school programsRead MoreThe Relationship Between Bullying And Suicide Essay1308 Words   |  6 PagesI feel State and Federal laws should be put into place to prevent bullying it would hold the bullier more accountable for his/her actions. The relationship between bullying and suicide is complex. Many media reports oversimplify this relationship, insinuating or directly stating that bullying can cause suicide. The facts tell a different story. In particular, it is not accurate and potentially dangerous to present bullying as the â€Å"cause† or â€Å"reason† for a suicide, or to suggest that suicide is aRead MoreBullying Is A Social Problem For Decades Essay1224 Words   |  5 PagesBullying has been a social problem for decades. Bullying started out with name calling, but today bulling comes in different forms. You find bullying in schools, texts, and social media to name a few. The following information provided in this research paper discusses the history of bullying and how the history has shaped bullying today. The paper will provide informative background information about bullying and the definition of bullying. This paper will discuss the roles and skills of the humanRead MoreBullying Is Becoming A More Visual And Talked About Concern1142 Words   |  5 PagesBullying in the Workplace Workplace bullying is becoming a more visual and talked-about concern in the business world, and finding ways to deal with the problem of bullying is an issue that needs to be addressed. In a survey of European Union employees, an illness that was rooted in stress was reported in 28% of employees (Rayner et. al. 8). According to Rayner, bullying may account for much of this workplace anxiety. My co-workers and I were victims of a workplace bully. This behavior includedRead MoreSetting Up Sucide Prevention Programs1427 Words   |  6 Pagescountless bullying and sex education programs, but suicide, the third leading cause of adolescent deaths (Caine 1), is practically ignored. Many schools only offer hot lines for suicidal students. While some schools have implemented suicide prevention programs and the government has recognized teenage suicide as a growing problem, effective solutions need to be discovered and funded to prevent these catastrophic deaths. The U.S. federal government should develop and fund suicide prevention programs

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Conservation tasks free essay sample

Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, despite their perceptual differences (Berk, 2009). In Piagets theory on conservation, children gradually acquire various conservation abilities, such as understanding the conservation of numbers, weight, and volume to name a few. Piaget asserts that until they successfully acquire these abilities, they have no real understanding that quantity remains unchanged despite perceptual changes of the objects with respect to their appearance. This paper aims to reconsider the accuracy of Piagets assertion, which is supported by alternative views of other theorists. Piagets conservation task goes like this. Children were first shown two objects that were both equal in quantity and appearance. They were then asked to judge whether the objects were still quantitatively equal after having seen one of the objects being transformed, where it stays quantitatively unchanged while its appearance is altered. Piagets evidence on childrens acquisition of understanding conservation was based on the their verbal explanations, which demonstrates their understanding of (a) reversibility (If you transform it back to its original state it will be the same), (b) compensation (Reduction in one aspect is compensated for in another), (c) identity (Nothing was added or subtracted, so it is the same) (Elkind, 1967). However, other theorists such as Elkind disagreed with Piaget. Piaget and Elkind had different views on conservation. According to Elkind (1967), conservation tasks involves two types of conservation, identity conservation and equivalence conservation. Identity conservation refers to equivalence between the before (V) and after (V1) state of the variable object. Equivalence conservation refers to equivalence between the standard (S) and variable object (V1). Elkind (1967) argues that Piagets discussion of conservation only deals with identity conservation as it only revolves around reversibility and compensation. For example, in the liquid conservation task, Piaget emphasised how children understood the quantity equivalence between liquid in a tall, narrow glass and liquid in a wide, shallow glass, by recognising that change in its height was compensated by a change in its width (compensation) (Berk, 2009). What Piaget failed to explain was how children knew the equivalence of the two immediately present objects (S V1). In the form of verbal explanation, a child who fully solved the task would say Since S was equal to V, and transformation of V to V1 did not change anything, S will be equal to V1 (Elkind, 1967), therefore exhibiting equivalence conservation. Piaget also assumed that identity and equivalence conservation acquisition occurs simultaneously in time. Other theorists argued that identity conservation emerges prior to that of equivalence conservation. For example, children could complete the task of adjusting the height of the water level of a container to match that of another container of different dimensions, at a time when they have yet acquired equivalence conservation (Elkind, 1967). At this stage, children had an incomplete concept of liquid quantity, which was based only on the water level. In Feigenbaum and Sulkin and Franks experiment, a 4-year-old could recognise that quantity was unchanged when they did not see the variable objects transformation. However, if they did, their anticipation of water level conflicts with the outcome as they anticipated the water level to remain unchanged because nothing was added or removed. This caused them to be fooled into making an incorrect judgement by the perceptual illusion and hence fail to recognise conservation, up until they understand compensation (Acredolo Acredolo, 1979), like what Piaget had proposed. Another example is when children were asked whether the clay sausage (transformed from a clay ball) weigh more/ less/ equal to the standard clay ball, they might think that the apparent increase (perceptually) in weight of the sausage is compensated for by the larger size of the ball, when the size was actually constant (Elkind, 1967). Clearly, children failed to show an understanding of the conservation of weight despite knowing that they were quantitatively unchanged. Hence, identity conservation is insufficient for passing conservation tasks which assess equivalence conservation. Therefore, children do have some degree of understanding of quantity constancy before they fully acquired conservation abilities, though their lack of understanding of compensation confuses and obstructs them from the correct evaluation that the objects were quantitatively equivalent. In all, theorists disagreed on Piagets point on childrens inability to recognise quantitative constancy when there was change in appearance, assuming that they did not see the transformation. However, even if they do have the ability, they still could not grasp the concept of equivalence conservation involving other abilities such as understanding conservation of weight, hence agreeing with Piaget. Theorists agree with Piaget on childrens gradual acquisition of conservation abilities as well. For example, in the course of learning number conservation, it is important to note that their concept of quantity emerged before their concept of conservation, and was based on perceptual cues such as height and length (Zimiles, 1963). As they learn how to count and other mathematical skills, they add on to this original concept of quantity and start to rely more on these skills for better accuracy. Therefore, at least in this concept, Piagets idea was unanimously agreed upon by other theorists. In conclusion, theorists do agree with Piaget in some of his ideas on conservation, such as childrens gradual acquisition of conservation abilities, and that for a complete understanding of conservation (comprising of both identity and equivalence conservation), children must fully grasp all the various types of conservation such as weight and number. There was also some debate on how Piaget discussed his theory of conservation, such that he explains only using identity conservation by stating children conserve by comparing V and V1, which only shows their understanding of compensational changes within one object (V and V1). Elkind (1967) disagreed on the grounds of the difference between identity and equivalence conservation, both of which are needed to pass Piagets conservation task. Equivalence conservation is based on a childs understanding of the relations between the objects that are immediately present, not the relations between the same object before and after transformation. Nevertheless, Piagets theory still serves as a useful guide on childrens cognitive development, although it has been proven that it is not completely accurate.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Responsible factors for climate change

By definition, climate change is an average long-term shift in weather patterns that is manifested by altering in the contributing factors including precipitation, temperature and pressure among other indicators. Climate change can be a consequence of a modification in variability typified by extreme weather conditions, for example, erratic rainfalls that cause floods.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Responsible factors for climate change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The earth’s climate is synonymous to this variability, however, its long-term climatic state is harmonized by the energy balance â€Å"between the incoming and the outgoing energy† (Ewing, 2012). As such, any external factor (climate forcers) affecting this energy balance may lead to climate changes. Importantly, these factors occur in different time-periods. Hence, the factors that affected climate change centuries back may not be the ones standing currently. Climate forcers can be categorized into two groups including human and natural causes. In addition to the duo, there are other changes that happen internally within the climate system, affecting the climate either as short-lived or long-lived. These modifications may be attributed to the atmospheric circulations among others factors. Human beings contribute to climate change when they engage in burning of fossil fuel, deforestation activities notwithstanding. These effects have been aggravated further since the inception of the era of industrial revolution. As a consequence, the face of the land has been altered tremendously, and the atmosphere is filled with fumes dominated by carbon dioxide gas, one of the greenhouse gases. These changes constitute what we can consider ourselves ‘climate forcers,’ who are responsible for destabilizing the earth’s energy system. To this end, the overall effect on the earth’s atmosphere has bee n a warming effect. The cumulative effect of the gas emissions on the planet is called the greenhouse effect. This is the reason of the global warming, and as such, it is believed that it may lead to erratic weather patterns, consequently affecting both the social and economic activities of man.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from the human activities, natural factors are other elements responsible for climate change. Such activities as volcanicity and the Sun insolation are among the external factors central to climate change. These two basically fall within the timescale of the contemporary causes of climate change. The duo have a significant effect on the incoming energy, however, volcanicity has a short-lived effect on the climate change. The intensity of the Sun insolation has considerably increased since the inception of the industrial revolution. This has bee n estimated to have increased by ten folds, consequently affecting climate significantly. The internal elements within the climate that affect the climate change could be due to the emitted gases that stem from human activities. These gases, for example, CO2, can be classed as long-lived because they take a while before they are eliminated from the atmosphere. Conversely, the short-lived gases, for instance, methane, clear off the atmosphere very fast. Class aside, if remained unchecked, short-lived gases have a potential of causing adverse climate change. They are responsible for the greenhouse effect. The history of the climate trend Climate has been changing to the worst since the era that is called industrial revolution. On analyzing the trend of the world’s mean temperature dating back to the 19th century, one can underscore the fact that, indeed, the Earth is experiencing global warming. In the 1960s, though, there was a compelling evidence of a shifting trend where exp erts reported that the planet was cooling. Nevertheless, new findings stipulated that this was a brief interruption and the trend would assume the previous modification process in the 1970s. These findings elicited a serious debate among climatologists with some predicting a sustained cooling trend over time. To this end, they cited a phase of a sustained natural cycle or perhaps the elements of smog and dust particles that continue to fill the atmosphere due to the human activities.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Responsible factors for climate change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those predicting otherwise believed that the effects of the greenhouse gas emissions would surpass those due to the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, and as such, global warming would resume. In a conclusion, the two opposing groups acknowledged the fact that their stands were just mare guesswork. In the meantime, ther e were advances in the climatology science. Nonetheless, in 1970s, the view that the warming would resume triumphed highlighting that the cooling was a brief interruption. With the turn of the century, the warming effect aggravated further as evident by the changing temperatures even at the depth of the ocean base. To scientists, this was a compelling evidence of a gross change in climate that had never been witnessed before. The specific pattern â€Å"of changes, revealed in objects ranging from ship logs to ice caps to tree rings, closely matched the predicted effects of greenhouse gas emissions† (Bredenberg, 2012). Ideally, one would wonder how meteorologists came up with the conclusion that the world was warming. Indeed, the journey to establishing of this fact was not an easy feat. Scientists had to deal with voluminous and uncertain data collected over a long period of time, and using different methods to come up with the conclusion. Among the pioneer groups of scientis ts who tried to establish this fact were the NASA and the Climate Research Unit (CRU), a British based group. In their research, they reached an almost similar answer that the planet’s average temperatures had raised by at least 0.50C in the past century. In the meantime, several other groups over the world were dedicated to measuring the weather patterns. Vitally, while some were engaging in careful, recording and securing of records in archives, the others were busy standardizing the instruments.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even with these data, no scientist would stake a claim that the world would warm in the future, especially with the 1940-70 dip as shown in below (fig. 1). With these findings, one is tempted to hold the thought that the current highs could be temporal. Current geopolitical response to climate change One may notice the ‘tug of war’ concerning the causes of climate change that continue to illicit mixed reactions among the science and anti-science zealots. On one hand, science holds the thought that the planet is experiencing global warming, and that the anti-science zealots are embedding efforts meant to stem this trend. On the other hand, the anti-scientists hold the view that global warming is not a consequence of the human activities, and that the scientists’ views are for selfish gains meant to transform the world’s economy. Surprisingly, the skeptics consider that even if the planet is warming, it is not a cause for alarm. Some critics of the scientif ic view base their argument on the alleged dishonesty amongst scientists. To this end, they cite the ‘Climategate Scandal’ as one of their evidences of scientists’ dishonesty. The details of the scandal, as revealed later, showed that someone had hacked into the server of the CRU and sent more than 1000 e-mails to people all over the world with a plot to falsify an average global temperature trend. This allegation was investigated by several agencies from both the US and the UK, revealing that the scientists were genuine in their findings. If not enough, skeptics find dishonesty in an e-mail that was written by Phil Jones to Micheal Mann, both from the CRU, disputing the latter’s chart as a ‘trick’ to mean that he was hiding a temperature decline (Ewing, 2008). However, in a bid to dilute skeptical views, scientists have a well established database in the blog, DeSmogBlog, of the individuals who are in dissent industry of global warming. Some critics hold the view that the idea of the man-engineered global warming emanates from neo-colonialism. As such, the idea is meant to shift focus of the development agenda from the developed economies to the third world economies. The opposing faction, however, believe that the skeptics’ view that global warming is not a man-made effect is a tactic to bar governments from interfering with their businesses (free-market). Free-market fundamentalists feel that governments are threatened by the fact that free-markets can resolve both the social and economic problems if given a freehand. Moreover, they tend to think that market fundamentalism has been a principal factor in determining the US’s public policy debates in the past three decades. If not enough, critics argue that most of these scientists holding the consensus view were cold-war research artillery, and that following the crumple of the Soviet Union, they sought solace in another global issue in the name of global warming to seek the world control. The response to climate change due to global warming is a universal issue defying commitments to the nations where the greenhouse gas emissions are more pronounced. This is owed to the fact that the greenhouse gases defuse rapidly and evenly over the world. To this end, the UN has been the platform, upon which responses to climate change has been addressed. Global bodies established under the UN umbrella, for instance, the Kyoto Protocol and the UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change), have made massive steps in trying to reverse this change. Chiefly, international policies have been adopted globally at a national cum regional level, signaling a consolidated approach aimed at stemming this change. The objective of the UNFCCC (formed in 1990) was to stabilize the greenhouse gases by the turn of the 21st century. However, subsequent meetings prior to the 21st century led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol in the year 19 97. Its objective focused on the developed economies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% with their respective 1990 levels as a baseline. This had to be achieved by the year 2012. This was not an easy feat to achieve, and as such, it took three meetings for the stakeholders to reach the Marrakesh Accord, which outlined the processes that were to be followed to achieve the Kyoto Protocol (Nicole, 2004). Importantly, in order for the Kyoto Protocol to be a legally binding document, it had to be ratified by more than 55 nations. The Annex 1 nations had to make up the 55 nations ratifying the protocol in order to account for at least 55% of the total emissions of the 1990 levels. For political and economic reasons, the US chose not to ratify the Protocol even though its emissions accounted for more than 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions emanating from the developed economies. One political reason that the US chose not to ratify the Protocol is that the treaty was pa rtial. To this, the US claims that the design of the treaty would leave out some economies known for their massive greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the US has been reluctant to ratify the Protocol for the reason that it would result in job losses by its citizens. Akin to the US, the Australian government temporarily failed to confirm the Protocol only to ratify it in 2007. Russia validated the Protocol after a while in the year 2004. The countries that were party to the treaty relied on three flexible means including Emission Trading, Joint Implementation (JI), and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to achieve the Kyoto Protocol. However, many investors hold a negative view over the JI and CDM mechanisms, citing too much bureaucracy involved in getting an approval. Vital remedies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions One of the remedies that governments ought to apply is the need to engage in the energy conservation practices. Economical utilization of energy goes all the way t o reducing the levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) a great deal. Designs meant for appliances at homes should aim at enhancing energy efficiencies. The state of California is a typical example of a region in the US that has taken its own initiative to engage in efficient utilization of energy. As such, striking research shows that between 1976 and 2005, this state has maintained its energy requirements at a fairly constant rate. This is opposed to the rest of the US, where the energy requirements had increased by 60%. Another striking revelation is that the total energy losses by the US economy surpass the total energy requirements of the Japanese economy. This shows that the Japanese machinery designs are energy-efficient. Economies should adopt sequestration models meant to capture CO2 instead of releasing it to the atmosphere (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010). Another remedy that governments should adopt is the use of alternative sources of clean, renewable sources of energ y instead of using bio-fuels. Among the major contributors of GHGs is coal. This energy source is far less efficient in its utilization (30% efficient). Among the clean, renewable energy sources that fit the billing one could name solar and wind energy. These two can play a major role in curbing GHG emissions. Another alternative is the use of nuclear energy. However, it is risky since some nations might use it as an arsenal. Therefore, to use it, all nations should be honest. Urbanization is one of the ‘enemies’ of the GHG-free atmosphere. It comes with deforestation, a practice that is believed to deny the atmosphere – the ‘lungs’- which is meant to clear the CO2 from it. While urbanization and industrialization change the world’s face in the name of creating wealth, these two practices are suicidal to the atmosphere. They basically utilize the land, a limited resource, without replacing it, leaving the land bare and depriving it of its â₠¬Ëœlungs’. To curb this trend, afforestation practices ought to be given a global attention and enhance the GHG-free atmosphere. Transport industry and hence the gasoline industry are the ones that contribute immensely to the GHGs, globally. There is need for engineers to come up with the engine designs that are more sensitive to our environment. The designs should be a hybrid formation of gasoline/electric engines to limit on the gasoline requirements. This would go all the way to limiting the GHG emissions into the atmosphere. In addition, some economies have adopted safe utilization policies whereby transportation to public destinations/institutions has to be done using a bigger unit (a bus) as opposed to smaller and numerous units (cars). This would curtail the GHG emissions. Future solutions to climate change After adopting the energy-efficient designs as well as conservation strategies, the void left to suffice the energy requirements has to be met by the GHG-free renew able energy sources. This has to be provided by the wind, solar, hydroelectric, and geothermal energy. The use of the wind energy as a ‘green power’ has been among the buzzwords of the greenhouse-free atmosphere advocates. It is a renewable source of energy that can be converted to mechanical energy, and eventually electrical energy before it is utilized. Ideally, to generate electricity, the site where the plant is mounted should be favorably windy in order to drive the giant turbines for generating electricity. The energy generated from wind can be used in home appliances as well as to drive industrial machines. Engineers have come up with the efficient turbine designs that can achieve maximum output from the wind power. The solar energy is another source of ‘green power’. This energy is derived from ultraviolet rays that emanate from the Sun. Through different mechanisms, this energy can be converted to electrical energy or can be used directly to serve the people’s needs. To convert the solar energy to electrical energy, one applies a photovoltaic cell. However, the efficiency of the solar energy is dependent on the insolation received per day. The maximum insolation got in a region is influenced by the latitude and the season of the same. To this end, the regions falling within the equator zone receive maximum insolation at midday. Moreover, one can use larger panels in regions that experience limited insolation to meet his/her needs. Directly, one may use the solar energy for heating and lighting. This is one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels since it is clean and renewable. The hydroelectric power is a ‘green power’ that may help in mitigating the greenhouse gas emissions. This energy is derived from water that drives a turbine to generate power. However, this energy is limited to regions that have no waterfalls. Nonetheless, they generate enough electricity that can be supplied to a far place. The en ergy received from this source can be used domestically as well as for driving industrial machines. Biomass is another source of energy, an alternative to fossil fuel though it is not a GHG-free source of energy. Recently, in such economies like Brazil, the use of biodiesel is slowly becoming popular. Akin to biomass, we do have fuel cells, which are powered by coal to generate electricity. Finally, the geothermal power accounts for another source of ‘green power.’ This form of energy is limited to regions that are endowed with hot springs. As such, this form of energy is not common. Nonetheless, the energy derived from this source can be converted to electricity to find application both domestically and in industries. References Bredenberg, A. (2011). The Climate Change Controversy – What’s It Really About? Green and Clean Journal, 2(3), 3-7. Ewing, R. (2008). Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute. Nicole, N. (2004). United States Problems with the Kyoto Treaty. New York, NY: New York University Press. U.S. Department of Transportation. (2010). Transportation’s Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson Learning. This essay on Responsible factors for climate change was written and submitted by user Am1ra to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Spanish Conquistadors

The Spanish Conquistadors From the moment of Christopher Columbus discovery of lands previously unknown to Europe in 1492, the New World captured the imagination of European adventurers. Thousands of men came to the New World to seek fortune, glory, and land. For two centuries, these men explored the New World, conquering any native people they came across in the name of the King of Spain (and the hope of gold). They came to be known as the conquistadors. Who were these men? Definition of Conquistador The word conquistador comes from Spanish and means he who conquers. The conquistadors were those men who took up arms to conquer, subjugate, and convert native populations in the New World. Who Were the Conquistadors? Conquistadors came from all over Europe. Some were German, Greek, Flemish, and so on, but most of them came from Spain, particularly southern and southwestern Spain. The conquistadors typically came from families ranging from the poor to the lower nobility. The very high-born rarely needed to set off in search of adventure. Conquistadors had to have some money to purchase the tools of their trade, such as weapons, armor, and horses. Many of them were veteran professional soldiers who had fought for Spain in other wars, like the reconquest of the Moors (1482-1492) or the Italian Wars (1494-1559). Pedro de Alvarado was a typical example. He was from the province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain and was the younger son of a minor noble family. He could not expect any inheritance, but his family had enough money to purchase good weapons and armor for him. He came to the New World in 1510 specifically to seek his fortune as a conquistador. Armies Although most of the conquistadors were professional soldiers, they werent necessarily well-organized. They were not a standing army in the sense that we think of it. In the New World, at least, they were more like mercenaries. They were free to join any expedition they wanted to and could theoretically leave at any time, although they tended to see things through. They were organized by units. Footmen, harquebusiers, cavalry, and so on served under trusted captains who were responsible to the expedition leader. Conquistador Expeditions Expeditions, such as Pizarros Inca campaign or the countless searches for the city of El Dorado, were expensive and privately financed (although the King still expected his 20 percent cut of any valuables discovered). Sometimes the conquistadors themselves chipped in funds for an expedition in the hopes that it would discover great wealth. Investors were also involved: wealthy men who would provision and equip an expedition expecting a share of the spoils if it discovered and looted a rich native kingdom. There was some bureaucracy involved, as well. A group of conquistadors could not just pick up their swords and head off into the jungle. They had to secure official written and signed permission from certain colonial officials first. Weapons and Armor Armor and weapons were crucially important for a conquistador. Footmen had heavy armor and swords made of fine Toledo steel if they could afford them. Crossbowmen had their crossbows, tricky weapons which they had to keep in good working order. The most common firearm at the time was the harquebus, a heavy, slow-to-load rifle. Most expeditions had at least a few harquebusiers along. In Mexico, most conquistadors eventually abandoned their heavy armor in favor of the lighter, padded protection the Mexicans used. Horsemen used lances and swords. Larger campaigns might have some artillerymen and cannons along, as well as shot and powder. Loot and the Encomienda System Some conquistadors claimed that they were attacking the New World natives to spread Christianity and save the natives from damnation. Many of the conquistadors were, indeed, religious men. However, the conquistadors were far more interested in gold and loot. The Aztecs and Inca Empires were rich in gold, silver, precious stones, and other things the Spanish found less valuable, like brilliant clothes made of bird feathers. Conquistadors who participated in any successful campaign were given shares based on many factors. The king and the expedition leader (like Hernan Cortes) each received 20 percent of all loot. After that, it was divided up among the men. Officers and horsemen got a larger cut than foot soldiers, as did crossbowmen, harquebusiers, and artillerymen. After the King, officers, and other soldiers had all gotten their cut, there was often not much left for the common soldiers. One prize which could be used to buy off conquistadors was the gift of an encomienda. An encomienda was land given to a conquistador, usually with natives already living there. The word encomienda comes from a Spanish verb meaning to entrust. In theory, the conquistador or colonial official receiving an encomienda had the duty of providing protection and religious instruction to the natives on his land. In return, the natives would work in mines, produce food or trade goods, and so on. In practice, it was little more than slavery. Abuses The historical record abounds in examples of conquistadors murdering and tormenting native populations, and these horrors are far too numerous to list here. Defender of the Indies Fray Bartolomà © de las Casas listed many of them in his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies. The native populations of many Caribbean islands, such as Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico, were essentially wiped out by a combination of conquistador abuses and European diseases. During the conquest of Mexico, Cortes ordered a massacre of Cholulan noblemen. Only months later, Cortes lieutenant Pedro De Alvarado would do the same thing in Tenochtitlan. There are countless accounts of Spaniards torturing and murdering natives to obtain the location of the gold. One common technique was to burn the soles of someones feet to get them to talk. One example was Emperor Cuauhtà ©moc of the Mexica, whose feet were burned by the Spanish to make him tell them where they could find more gold. Famous Conquistadors Famous conquistadors who have been remembered in history include Francisco Pizarro, Juan Pizarro, Hernando Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Juan Ponce de Leon, Panfilo de Narvaez, Lope de Aguirre, and Francisco de Orellana. Legacy At the time of the conquest, Spanish soldiers were among the finest in the world. Spanish veterans from dozens of Europeans battlefields flocked to the New World, bringing their weapons, experience, and tactics with them. Their deadly combination of greed, religious zeal, ruthlessness, and superior weaponry proved too much for native armies to handle, especially when combined with lethal European diseases, such as smallpox, which decimated native ranks. Conquistadors left their marks culturally as well. They destroyed temples, melted down golden works of art, and burned native books and codices. Defeated natives were usually enslaved via the encomienda system, which persisted long enough to leave a cultural imprint on Mexico and Peru. The gold the conquistadors sent back to Spain began a Golden Age of imperial expansion, art, architecture, and culture. Sources Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain. Penguin Classics, John M. Cohen (Translator), Paperback, Penguin Books, August 30, 1963. Hassig, Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. The Civilization of the American Indian Series, First Edition Edition, University of Oklahoma Press, September 15, 1995. Las Casas, Bartolomà © de. The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account. Herma Briffault (Translator), Bill Donovan (Introduction), 1st Edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, February 1, 1992. Levy, Buddy. Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs. Paperback, 6/28/09 edition, Bantam, July 28, 2009. Thomas, Hugh. Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico. Paperback, Reprint edition, Simon Schuster, April 7, 1995.